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Peas

Pea fertilizer application tables according to soil types

growing peas in africa fresh organic

Pea fertilizer (Pisum sativum) requirements can be calculated if you know your soil type and have a good idea of the yield potential of your land and climate. These are basic norms and your specific microclimate and variety can have an influence on the total amount applied. These norms do not take top dressings into account, only the total amount of N, P and K applied during the growth season. The fertilizer can be applied either through the irrigation system or as granular fertilizer. Consult your supplier on the effectiveness of these fertilizers on the various soils to make adjustments to these amounts.

Note that peas are less sensitive to soil fertility than other crops. On rich virgin soils only a maintenance application of fertilizer is necessary. Hu et AL (2018)1)Hu, Falong & Tan, Yan & Yu, Aizhong & Zhao, Cai & A. Coulter, Jeffrey & Fan, Zhilong & Yin, Wen & Fan, Hong & Chai, Qiang. (2018). Low N Fertilizer Application and Intercropping Increases N Concentration in Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Grains. Frontiers in Plant Science. 9. 1763. found that intercropping peas with other crops lowers the requirements for N application over time. It also increases the quality of the yields.

Three soils are used in these tables:

  • S/SL – Sandy to Sandy Loam
  • SL/S – Sandy Loam to Sand
  • SCL/C – Sandy Clay Loam to Clay

Pea Nitrogen (N) application

Pea fertilizer requirement ito nitrogen is easy. You don’t need a soil analysis just a good idea of your yield potential in the area. Be careful not to overestimate your potential yields as too much nitrogen will also have a negative effect on total yield and the quality of the pods. High nitrogen content makes the plant more susceptible to insect damage and diseases.

Yield target t/ha S/SL SL/S SCL/C
0-2.0 0-25 0-25 0-25
2.1-3.0 0-35 0-35 0-35
3.1-4 0-45 0-45 0-45

Pea Phosphorus (P) requirement – (Bray 1)

Phosphorus fertilizer requirements are based on Bray 1 lab analysis. If another method is used the values must be adjusted. The minimum amount applied is always about 20 kg P per hectare as P is not that mobile and a certain level of P must always be maintained in the soil.

 

P analysis (ppm) Yield target 40 t/ha
1-10 60-70
11-20 50-60
21-30 30-50
31-40 20-40
 41-60 15-30
 61-80 15-20
 81-100 5-10
 101-120 0-5
121-200 0

Pea potassium (K) fertilization

Potassium requirements are based on a soil analysis and yield estimates. Potassium is extremely important for flower formation and water regulation. Over fertilization can increase the salt content of the soil to such an extent that water uptake is reduced. Note that low nitrogen soil content will impair the translocation of potassium to other parts of the plant. A potassium deficiency in the plant will not be noticed as quickly as nitrogen or iron. Deficiency symptoms occur first in the older leaves as potassium is transferred to younger leaves first. Note that beans are sensitive to salt stress, so too high applications can reduce yields.

Soil type Soil analysis Yield t/ha
ppm 0-20 21-30 31-40
S/LS 1-20 100 110 120
SL/L 1-30 100 110 120
SCL/C 1-40 100 110 120
S/LS 21-40 80 90 100
SL/L 31-60 80 90 100
SCL/C 41-80 80 90 100
S/LS 41-60 60 70 80
SL/L 61-90 60 70 80
SCL/C 81-120 60 70 80
S/LS 61-80 40 50 60
SL/L 91-120 40 50 60
SCL/C 121-160 40 50 60
S/LS 81-100 20 30 40
SL/L 121-150 20 30 40
SCL/C 161-200 20 30 40
S/LS 101-121 0 10 20
SL/L 151-180 0 10 20
SCL/C 201-240 0 10 20
S/LS 121+ 0 0 0
SL/L 180+ 0 0 0
SCL/C 241+ 0 0 0

 

Below is the well known soil texture triangle on which the pea fertilizer recommendations are based. Most commercial agricultural soils are found in the left bottom corner as they are the most productive and provide the plant with best yield potentials.

Soil textural triangle for pea fertilizer requirements.2)https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:USDA_Soil_Texture.svg by Christopher Aragón

 

 

References   [ + ]

1. Hu, Falong & Tan, Yan & Yu, Aizhong & Zhao, Cai & A. Coulter, Jeffrey & Fan, Zhilong & Yin, Wen & Fan, Hong & Chai, Qiang. (2018). Low N Fertilizer Application and Intercropping Increases N Concentration in Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Grains. Frontiers in Plant Science. 9. 1763.
2. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:USDA_Soil_Texture.svg by Christopher Aragón

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