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  • Sweet potato soil requirements Sweet potato soil requirements are similar to many other vegetable crops. Good high quality soil is the first step towards good yields, it is not…
  • Root knot nematode Root knot nematode, Meloidogyne spp., are small round worms present on the roots and must not be confused with root knots of Rhizobium spp., which…
  • What are good spray… A good spray programs is not rocket science, and it shouldn't be. There are millions of successful farmers around the world that get it right…
  • Basics of growing basil Basil is native of tropical Asia, where for centuries, especially in India, it has been highly esteemed as a condiment. The early Greek and Roman…
  • Factors that influence plant… We cannot control and know all the factors that influence plant growth. We know that by addressing the most limiting factor to plant growth, plants…
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Root knot nematode

Root knot nematode, Meloidogyne spp., are small round worms present on the roots and must not be confused with root knots of Rhizobium spp., which are actually good for the plant. Legume nodules are smaller and pinkish inside while Root Knot galls are distorted and have abnormal branches. Root Knot infestation just looks bad compared…

Spray program guidelines

spray guidelines vegetable farming

Scientific application of a spray program ensures its effectiveness. All chemicals must be applied at the right place (target) and the right time and in the right way. Pesticides and fungicides are dangerous chemicals, they are designed to kill pests and diseases, but they can also kill humans if not used correctly. The application method…

Beetroot weed control

beetroot commercial farming africa how to small scale tips

Beetroot mechanical weed control Weeds are controlled either by hand or chemically. Since beetroot seed is actually a small fruit with 2-6 seeds inside, the bunches of seedlings are thinned out so that only one seedling is left and at least 75mm apart. One of the biggest problems with weeds is that they compete with…

Soil-herbicide interactions

weeds control soil herbicides effects

Soil-herbicide chemical degradation The soil-herbicde chemical decomposition are those processes that are not influenced by microbes.  Chemical breakdown processes are Oxidation Reduction Hydrolysis Herbicides that are applied in wet soils with low oxygen will not be degraded through oxidation since those soils have low oxygen levels. Physical processes of herbicide degradation Soil-herbicide physical decomposition are processes such…

Plant herbicide interactions

Plant herbicide interactions for field grown crops After applying a herbicide to a field with weeds, the herbicide needs to follow a certain path in order for it to be effective. Firstly it has to be absorbed through the leaf cuticle Secondly the herbicide must be trans-located through the plant in order to have any…

Herbicide formulations

Chemical control of weeds

Once the active ingredient of the herbicide has been developed it has to be presented to the user in a format which will be both economical and effective. Many companies provide the growers with a herbicide in different formulations depending on the application. The different formulations are used in order to vary the volatility, solubility,…

Herbicide classification

Characteristics of each chemical group differs from each other so it is important to know to what group a herbicide belongs before applying it to a plant. Active ingredient will also provide an indication of lead time before a crop can he safely harvested.  There are so many ways of classifying herbicides that we decided…

Banned and restricted herbicides

As the pressure increases to develop safer and more economical herbicides, the Government is forced to either withdraw or restrict some of the older chemicals.  Table 3 provides a list of the restricted and banned herbicides used in South Africa.  It is important to have this list handy so that anybody using these chemicals can be…