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  • Green bean micronutrients: requirements Green bean micronutrients or trace elements are often a forgotten aspect, not just in green beans but in general vegetable farming. Micronutrient deficiencies are rare…
  • Green bean planting times Green bean planting times are crucial since they are sensitive to frost They can be cultivated only when there is no longer any danger or…
  • Pests found commercial lettuce… Lettuce pests can be controlled in large commercial plantings. Due to the high planting densities and large fields, scouting is often neglected. Most pests are…
  • How to grow lettuce… According to botanists the current variety, Lactuca sativa, was developed from Lactuca scariola, which is a common weed in Europe, Abyssinia, East Asia and the…
  • The production of pumpkins… Pumpkins and squashes belong to the family cucurbitaceae and are related to calabashes, watermelons and muskmelons. Pumpkins and squashes probably originated in America from where…
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Soil-herbicide interactions

weeds control soil herbicides effects

Soil-herbicide chemical degradation The soil-herbicde chemical decomposition are those processes that are not influenced by microbes.  Chemical breakdown processes are Oxidation Reduction Hydrolysis Herbicides that are applied in wet soils with low oxygen will not be degraded through oxidation since those soils have low oxygen levels. Physical processes of herbicide degradation Soil-herbicide physical decomposition are processes such…

Plant herbicide interactions

Plant herbicide interactions for field grown crops After applying a herbicide to a field with weeds, the herbicide needs to follow a certain path in order for it to be effective. Firstly it has to be absorbed through the leaf cuticle Secondly the herbicide must be trans-located through the plant in order to have any…

Physiological classification of herbicides

The selection of herbicides is not always based on the weed that it should control.  There are many conditions in the environment that will influence the grower or user’s decision to use a specific herbicide.  For instance, the length that the herbicide will be active in the soil will be of major importance with vegetable…

Herbicide formulations

Chemical control of weeds

Once the active ingredient of the herbicide has been developed it has to be presented to the user in a format which will be both economical and effective. Many companies provide the growers with a herbicide in different formulations depending on the application. The different formulations are used in order to vary the volatility, solubility,…

Herbicide classification

Characteristics of each chemical group differs from each other so it is important to know to what group a herbicide belongs before applying it to a plant. Active ingredient will also provide an indication of lead time before a crop can he safely harvested.  There are so many ways of classifying herbicides that we decided…

Banned and restricted herbicides

As the pressure increases to develop safer and more economical herbicides, the Government is forced to either withdraw or restrict some of the older chemicals.  Table 3 provides a list of the restricted and banned herbicides used in South Africa.  It is important to have this list handy so that anybody using these chemicals can be…

Application of herbicides

Application and Herbicide drift If pressure is used to apply herbicides, there will always be some herbicide drift through the air.  If there is no commercial crop in the vicinity, spray drift will have no effect, however, when weeds have to be controlled between rows of a commercial crop, any spray drift might cause considerable damage.…